Principles of Management – Introduction to Management (ITM)

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Principles of ManagementIntroduction to Management (ITM)
Principles of Management
Third Semester | Second Year
BSc.CSIT | Tribhuvan University

Principles of management:
Principles are fundamental truths. They are generally accepted as guidelines and have universal application. Management principles have been developed to facilitate, guide and simplify managerial work systems. Management principles have been developed out of experience, and they are continually restricted and modified. Therefore, we need to understand that there is no final word on management principles. Some principles, commonly practiced in management are:

1. Management By Objective (MBO):
Management by objective is goal oriented and goals are set down in quantitative terms. Hence it is also called management by result. Effectiveness of management is judged by degree to which stated objectives are being achieved. According to Robbins, the process of MBO includes:(i) Goals setting: Setting up long term and short term goal with participative approach,(ii)Action Planning: Sequencing the steps of action, allotment of duties and responsibilities, schemes for allocation resources,etc,(iii) Monitoring and Evaluation of performance-Self control technique and,(iv) Progress review and feedback for corrective actions.

2. Division of Work:
The work is divided into smaller package and distributed among the members of group based, on the nature of work or functions to be carried out. When there is specialization and division of labour, each member exercises his /her own skills towards achieving the objective. Management should assign the right (balanced) proportion and kind of work to groups and employees.

3. Authority and Responsibility:
Authority is legitimate (legal) power. It is the right to give order. Responsibility is obligation to perform the work. This principle states that authority should flow from responsibility.Similarly, responsibility should be accompanied by authority. Both should flow together.

4. Unity of Command:
This principle states that one employee should have only one boss. Multiple bosses weaken discipline, divide loyalty, create conflicts and undermine authority.

5. Unity of Direction:
This principle states that there should be one head and one plan for group of activities having the same objective. This principle is essential for coordination of efforts, better use of resources and effective communication.

6. Scalar Chain of Command (Hierarchy):
Management should have a scalar chain of command. All employees should be linked with each other in superior-subordinate relationships. Orders and communication should pass through the scalar chain.

7. Span of Management:
This principle states that there is a limit to the number of subordinates that the superior can supervise .Organization Charts reflect span of management. This principle is also known as span of control.

8. Superiority of organization interests:
It states that interests of organization should be above the interests of individual. Personal goals should not conflict with the organizational goals.

9. Discipline:
This principle states that discipline is essential for proper functioning of organization.However; discipline is what leaders make it.

10. Human resource Management:
This principle states that fair and equitable remuneration, both financial and non financial, should be given to employees. There should be:
• Stability of tenure of employees.
• Right man in the right job.
• Good working environment
• Spirits de corps

11. Management by exception:
This principle states that management should pay attention only to exceptional case where established standards, policies and procedures cannot be followed. This principle applies to routine work. It requires delegation of authority to subordinates.

12. Supportive relationship:
This principle states that managers should build supportive relationships with subordinates. They should provide them social, psychological and moral support. They should contribute to their sense of personal worth and dignity.

13. Principle of participation:
In this approach, Management encourages subordinates to give suggestions and participate in decision making in all matters directly related to their jobs. Participation in management improves the group members’ sense of personal usefulness and dignity (self respect), and secures their commitments to organizational goal.

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