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Concept/Definition of Motivation and Motivation Techniques

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motivationConcept/Definition of Motivation
Principles of Management (POM)
Third Semester | Second year
BSc.CSIT | Tribhuvan University (TU)

Motivation is the act of inspiring employees to devote maximum effort to achieve organizational objective. It is a psychological and human aspect. It is the art of inspiring and encouraging subordinates to do work in an effective way so that both organizational and individual goals can be achieved. Its definition may vary from people to people. Definitions of motivation by different personnel are as follows;

“The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways”. – Ricky W. Griffin
“Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or needs that activates behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive”. – Fred Luthans
“Motivation can be defined as a willingness to expend energy to achieve a goal or reward.” – Dale S. Beach
“Motivation, simply defined, is the act of stimulating someone to take a desired course of action.” – M.D. Jucious
“Motivation is a process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of efforts toward attaining a goal”. – Stephen P. Robbins

Motivation can be defined in different terms. For example motivation is

  • act of stimulating someone to expand energy,
  • an internal feeling,
  • related to Needs,
  • Goal oriented Behavior,

A manager can use different techniques to motivate their employees. Some of the techniques used for motivating subordinates are as follows;

  • Management by objective (MBO)
  • Employee involvement programs
  • Variable pay programs (incentive system)
  • Skill based pay plan
  • Flexible benefit programs
  • Job redesigning and scheduling programs

Motivation Process

Need: It is a Physiological or psychological deficiency. E.g. need for food.
Drives: Action oriented motive. E.g. Hunger drive.
Incentives: It is anything that will ease a need and reduce drive. E.g. Food
Unsatisfied needs create tension. The tension gives rise to drive. The drive generates search behavior to find particular goals. The attained goal will satisfy need which will reduce tension.

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