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How does a Web Server link physically on the Internet? | Web Technologies

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how web server link physically on the internetHow web server link physically to the Internet,
Web Technologies Notes| Sixth Semester,
BSc.CSIT | Tribhuvan University (TU)

How web server links to Internet
Internet is a global network of computers. Each computer connected to the internet must have a unique address called IP address. To talk to other computers on the internet, web servers need a protocol stack, which is built into the OS. The message to be exchanged start at the top of the stack and work its way downwards. The message is turned into packets of data which is converted to electrical signals by the physical layer and transmitted over the line.

Internet backbone is made up of large networks which interconnect with each other. These layer networks are called Network Service Provider (NSP). Take a example; WNet, CerfNet, IBM. These network peer with each other to exchange packet traffic. Each network service provider is required to connect to 3 Network Access Point (NAP). At NAPs, packet traffic may jump from one NSP backbone to another NSPs backbone.

No computer knows where any of the computers in the internet are. This information used to get packets to their destination are contained in routing tables kept by each router connected to the internet. Each router knows about its sub-network and which IP address key use.

At the bottom web servers and clients connect to a local area network which is then connected to ISP networks and finally to the backbone network.

Packets sent by web server arrive at router, the router examines the IP address put there by the IP protocol layer on the server. Router checks it’s routing table. if found, it sends the packet to destination else it sends the packet along a default route.

How we navigate from one URL to another

  • We enter the URL into the browser or click on a link in the page.
  • the browser looks up the IP address for the domain name.
  • The browser sends an HTTP request to the web server.
  • The server handles the request.
  • The server sends back an HTTP response.
  • Browser begins rendering the HTML.
  • The browser then sends requests for embedded objects in HTML. Eg: images, CSS, Js
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