POM Short Questions Solution – 2067 – Introduction to Management (ITM)

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Short questions solution-2067Short Questions Solution – 2067
Principles of Management (POM)
Third Semester | Second year
BSc.CSIT | Tribhuvan University (TU)

Short Questions Solution – 2067
a. What is the theory developed by Douglas McGregor?
The theory developed by Douglas McGregor is Theory X and Theory Y. He proposed that two different set of assumption about work attitudes and behaviors dominate the way managers think and affect how they behave in organizations.

b. What is leadership?
Leadership(or leading) is the ability(process) of influencing the behavior of people and directing towards the achievement of certain goals. It is the ability to influencing a group towards achievements of goals.

c. What is MBO?
It is a process of defining objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they need to do in the organization. It can also be defined as a management system in which the objectives of an organization are agreed upon so that management and employees understand a common way forward.

d. What is programmed decision making?
Programmed decision making is defined as process of making decision which goes on routine and repetitive in nature. For example; teaching of teacher in regular routine class. It can also be defined as structured decision making process which is easy to decide with the help of past decisions. It is helpful for middle and lower level managers.

e. What do you understand by principle of order under principle of management?
Principle of order is defined by Henri Fayol. His principle states that there should be a proper order for everything. According to Fayol, in every organization two different orders are necessary:

  • Material Order: This order specifies that there should be a proper place for all physical resources. It states “A proper place for everything and everything at its proper place”. This will eliminate any kind of confusion regarding the search of material as the place of materials is already fixed and thus reduces wastage of material, time and efforts.
  • Social Order: This order specifies that there should be a proper place for all human resources in accordance with their designations. It states “An appointed place for every employee and each employee at his/her appointed place”. This order is based on the basic assumption of “Right man for the right job”.

f. List any three limitations of functional organizations?
This functional structure is based on principle of decentralization of authority. There are number of functional specialist to supervise a single subordinate. The objective of this organizational structure is to give a place to specialists at the supervisory level in the line organization. Three limitations of functional organizations are as follows;

  • Lack of unity of command
  • Delay in decision making
  • Poor coordination

g. What is conflict?
Conflict refers to all kind of opposition between or among individual and groups. It is an inevitable dimension of organizational life. When people, groups or organizations disagree over the significant issues, conflicts are often the result. It mainly arises from disagreements over the goals and methods, differences over the interpretations of facts, personality differences, and even due to the poor communication.
If conflicts are too high, it can become a hindrance to performance. If it is too low, performance tends to be low. A desirable level of it is good for organizational and group effectiveness. Leaders spend about 20% of their time dealing with it.

h. What is quality control?
Quality Control defined by ISO “the operational techniques and activities that are used to satisfy quality requirements.
” An important part of the quality control is the Quality Assessment: the system of activities to verify if the quality control activities are effective, in other words: an evaluation of the products themselves. Quality control is primarily aimed at the prevention of errors. Yet, despite all efforts, it remains inevitable that errors are be made. Therefore, the control system should have checks to detect them. When errors or mistakes are suspected or discovered it is essential that the “Five Ws” are trailed:

  • what error was made?
  • where was it made?
  • when was it made?
  • who made it?
  • why was it made?

Only when all these questions are answered, proper action can be taken to correct the error and prevent the same mistake being repeated.

i. What is flexible plan?
Flexible plans are directional plans. It is changeable on the basis of time and situation. It is not specific in terms of procedures and allocation of resources. This type of plan provides only guidelines to the members. It can be modified on the basis of the facility and resources.

j. What is Management Information System?
Management information systems are primarily meant for providing information from data after processing them. The information systems do not generate data. The data are generated, collected, recorded, stored, processed and retrieved after it has been generated by business operations in an organization.
The information systems are designed for different levels of management-they are supported to cater to the information needs of decision makers at top, middle and lower levels of management. Information systems are designed for supplying information to managers in the areas of marketing, finance, production, personnel, materials, logistics, etc.

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