Explanation of Four Types of Digital Documents | Fundamentals of E-Commerce

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types of digital document4 Types of Digital Documents:- Imaging,
Structured, Hypertext, and Active Documents
Fundamentals of E-commerce Notes | Sixth Semester,
BSc.CSIT | Tribhuvan University (TU)

Types of Digital Document
1) Document Imaging
An imaging system passes appear document through a scanner that renders it digital and then stores the digital data as a bit-mapped image of document. Document imaging emulates microfiche and microfilm. The problem with the imaging approach is that the output contains only images not text.

The following imaging standards are prominently used;

  • TIFF(tag image file format): format for interchange of bit-mapped images.
  • ITU-TSS(international telecommunication union-telecommunication standardization sector) Group IV T.6 facsimile: this standard is used for compression and exchange of bit-mapped files.

2) Structured Documents
Structured documents is a types of digital documents which provide clear description of document content. Structured documents apply data-base structuring capabilities to individual documents and document collections.

Capabilities of Structured Documents

  • Document formatting, rendering and presentation (interactive CDs of customer catalog, manuals)
  • Dynamic documents, user interaction and manipulation such as the ability to create bookmarks, highlight
    text and write notes.
  • Easier search and query

Standard for structured documents are:

  • SGML (Standard Generalization Markup Language):
    It is an ISO standard for interchange & multi-formatting description of text document in terms of logical
    structure.
  • ODA (Office Document Architecture):
    It is an ANSI & ISO standard for interchange of compound office documents. ODA specifies both content &
    format.
  • CDA (Compound Document Architecture):
    It defines set of rules for content and format .It defines services for compound documents.
  • RTF (Rich –Text Format):
    It is developed by Microsoft for interchanging of desk top documents.

3) Hyper Text Documents
Hyper text is a way of making document-based information more mobile.

Reasons for mobility of information are:

  • Information in enterprises is seldom located on server but is distributed throughout the organization.
  • Accessing & retrieving large monolithic document is time consuming.
  • Reuse of document for composing new documents is difficult task.
  • In this relation ships between documents can be represented through hypermedia links i.e. hyperlinks.

Standards of Hypertext Documents

  • HyTime: It adds time based relationships like synchronization, t is extension of SGML.
  • HTML: Developed by WWW to support distributed hypermedia.
  • MHEG: (Multimedia /Hypermedia Encoding/Experts Group):standard for presenting objects in multimedia

4) Active Documents
Active document represents what is known as document oriented computing. It provide an interactive interface between documents. they are especially powerful because they combine composition of information with the
distributed nature of information. For example; spreadsheet, word-processing

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