Meaning of System Analysis and Explanation of system development life cycle with example

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about system analysisSystem Analysis and System Development Life Cycle (SDLC), Phases of SDLC
BSc.CSIT | Fourth Semester | Second Year | Tribhuvan University (TU)
Subject: System Analysis and Design (SAD)

System Analysis:
Systems analysis is a process of collecting actual data, understand the processes involved, identifying problems and recommending feasible suggestions for improving the system functioning. This involves studying the business processes, gathering operational data, understand the information flow, finding out bottlenecks and evolving solutions for overcoming the weaknesses of the system so as to achieve the organizational goals. System Analysis also includes subdividing of complex process involving the entire system, identification of data store and manual processes. The major objectives of systems analysis are to find answers for each business process: What is being done, How is it being done, Who is doing it, When is he doing it, Why is it being done and How can it be improved? It is more of a thinking process and involves the creative skills of the System Analyst. It attempts to give birth to a new efficient system that satisfies the current needs of the user and has scope for future growth within the organizational constraints. The result of this process is a logical system design. Systems analysis is an iterative process that continues until a preferred and acceptable solution emerges.

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) :-

System Development Life Cycle is Common methodology for system development used to develop, maintain and replace information system. It Features several phases that make the progress of the system analysis and design effort. It could have about 3 – 20 phases. It is a circular process in which the end of the useful life of one system leads to the beginning of another project that will develop a new version or replace an existing system altogether. Specific steps and their sequence are meant to be adopted as required for a project consistent with management approaches. Orderly set of activities are conducted and planned for each development project. Formally we describe Software Development Life Cycle into 5 phases and they are as follows;

5 phases in SDLC

Phases of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

  1. Planning:
    Planning is a first phase in SDLC. It identifies need for a new or enhanced system. In this phase organization’s total information system are identified, analyzed, prioritized and arranged. Needs of organization can be prioritized and translated into a plan for the information system department including a schedule for developing new major systems. Planning determines which system to develop and may be affected by ad-hoc user requests submitted as the need for new/enhanced system arises as well as formalized planning process. Organization should determine which resources should be devoted to the development or enhancement of each information system under consideration. It Involves investigation of system problem or opportunity at hand and the presentation of reasons why the system should/shouldn’t be developed by the organization. It also determines the scope of the proposed system. Baseline project plan customizes the standardized SDLC and specifies time and resource needed for execution.
  2. Analysis:
    This is the second phase of SDLC. In this phase system requirements are studied and structured. It involves thorough study of organization’s current procedures and information system used to perform organizational tasks. It has 2 sub phases and they are as follows;

    • Requirements determination
      • Analyst work with user to determine what users want from proposed system.
      • Careful study of any current system manual and computerized, that might be placed/enhanced as part of project.
    • Study requirement and structure, then according to their interrelationship, eliminate any redundancy
      • Output of analysis is a description of the alternative solution recommended by analysis team.
  3. Design:
    In this phase of SDLC, description of recommended solution is converted to logical and physical system specifications. During this phase, one must design from input and output screens to reports, databases and computer processes. It provide physical specifics of the system they have designed either as a model or as detailed documentation to guide those who will build the new system. This phase is further divided into two sub-phases and they are;

    • Logical design:
      It is a part of design phase in which all functional features of the system are chosen for development in analysis and are described independently of any computer platform. It should make sure that system functions as intended. It concentrates on business aspects of system and tends to be oriented to a higher level of specificity.
    • Physical design:
      In this phase logical specification of system are transformed into technology specific details from which all programming and system construction can be accomplished. This phase should design various parts of system to perform physical operation necessary to facilitate data capture, processing and information output. It involves creating working model of system, writing detailed specifications, describing all the different parts of system and how they should be built. It determine physical necessities to build final system, programming language to be written in, database system to store, hardware platform to run. In this phase, system is finalized and physical system specification in a form is made ready to be formed over to programmers and other system builder for construction.
  4. Implementation:
    This is the phase in which information system is coded, tested, installed and supported in the organization. Analyst turn system specification into working system that is tested and then put to use. It includes coding, testing and installation. Programmers write the program that make up the system. During testing, programmers test individual programs and the entire system to find error and correct it. New system is installed which becomes part of daily activities of the organization. Testing and installation should be planned for as early as project initiation and planning phase because both require extensive analysis. It include initial user support such as finalization of document, training program and ongoing user assistance.
  5. Maintainance
    This is the final phase of SDLC. It is the phase where information system is systematically repaired and improved. In this phase, changes are made that user ask and modify the system to reflect changing business condition. Repetition of other phase is required, to study and implement the needed changes. Time and effort required for this phase depends on performance of previous phases.
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